– Aesthetic considerations have influenced the management of dental maladies in varying
degrees for many years.
– For many years the goals of periodontal surgery have been determined by functional aspects only.
– During recent years periodontal surgery has shifted its focus from achieving more functional goals toward a combination of both good functional and esthetic results.
– While accomplishing the best possible functional result, esthetics should not only be
maintained, but also enhanced.
– Sometimes the esthetic outcome is the only important factor and function becomes
secondary (e.g. treatment of recessions or the creation of papillae).
– Predictability becomes the key word in this type of periodontal surgery.
– Mucogingival surgery is a broaderterm that includes nonsurgical procedures such as papilla reconstruction by means of orthodontic or restorative therapy.
– Periodontal plastic surgery is defined as surgical procedures performed to prevent or
correct anatomic, developmental, traumatic or disease induced defects in the gingiva,
alveolar mucosa or bone.
– Among treatment procedures that may fall within this definition are various soft and hard
tissue procedures aiming at: gingival augmentation, root coverage, correction of mucosal defects at implants, augmentation of edentulous ridges, removal of aberrant frenulum,
prevention of bridge collapse associated with tooth extraction, crown lengthening,
mucogingival tattoo, open interproximal space, gingival enlargement and exposure
of teeth that are not likely to erupt.
– The present chapter is presenting and discussing the clinical outcomes of several root